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How to randomly assign data to groups in Excel

To randomly people (or anything) to groups you can use the RANDBETWEEN function with the CHOOSE function.


=CHOOSE(RANDBETWEEN(1,3),"Group A","Group B","Group B")


In the example shown, the formula in F3 is:


When copied down the column, this formula will generate a random group (A, B, or C) for each person in the list.

Worked Example:   How to get random value from list or table in Excel

How this formula works

The RANDBETWEEN function generates random numbers between two integers. The CHOOSE function takes a number as the first argument, and uses that number to select the “nth” item from the following arguments.

Worked Example:   How to use Excel CHOOSE Function

So, in this formula, RANDBETWEEN generates a number between 1 and 3, this number is used to choose a group from the 3 following values: “A”,”B”,”C”.

You can use this same approach any time you need make random assignments. It’s especially useful when you you need to assign data to a limited number of text values.

Worked Example:   RAND vs RANDBETWEEN function examples in Excel

Automatic recalculation

Be aware that RANDBETWEEN will re-calculate whenever there is any change to a workbook, or even when a workbook is opened. Once you have a set of random assignments, you may want to copy and paste the formulas as values to prevent further changes.

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