# COVARIANCE.S function: Description, Usage, Syntax, Examples and Explanation

## What is COVARIANCE.S function in Excel?

## Syntax of COVARIANCE.S function

COVARIANCE.S(array1,array2)

The COVARIANCE.S function syntax has the following arguments:

- Array1 Required. The first cell range of integers.
- Array2 Required. The second cell range of integers.

## COVARIANCE.S formula explanation

- The arguments must either be numbers or be names, arrays, or references that contain numbers.
- If an array or reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are ignored; however, cells with the value zero are included.
- If array1 and array2 have different numbers of data points, COVARIANCE.S returns the #N/A error value.
- If either array1 or array2 is empty or contains only 1 data point each, COVARIANCE.S returns the #DIV/0! error value.

## Example of COVARIANCE.S function

Steps to follow:

1. Open a new Excel worksheet.

2. Copy data in the following table below and paste it in cell A1

Note: For formulas to show results, select them, press F2 key on your keyboard and then press Enter.

You can adjust the column widths to see all the data, if need be.

Formula |
Description |
Result |

=COVARIANCE.S({2,4,8},{5,11,12}) | Sample covariance for the data points entered as an array in the function. | 9.666666667 |

2 | 5 | |

4 | 11 | |

8 | 12 | |

Formula | Description | Result |

=COVARIANCE.S(A3:A5,B3:B5) | Sample covariance for the identical data points, but entered as cell ranges in the function. | 9.666666667 |